Benefits of Instillation
with a Lubricant
For procedures involving the sensitive tissue of the urethra, ensuring that the full length of the urethra is coated to protect against trauma is critically important. Clinical experience has demonstrated that some methods – such as coating only instrument tips or catheters with a lubricant – are insufficient to protect the urethra from injury, as the lubricant is lost upon entering the urethra.1
Instillation of a lubricant prior to urethral instrumentation reduces the danger of physical trauma to the vulnerable urothelium.1,2 By coating the urethra evenly and completely with lubricant, the urethra, which would otherwise be collapsed, is gently dilated and kept open for the procedure.1,2,3
The instillation of lubricants into the urethra causes the mucous membrane to unfold, setting the stage for full coverage prior to introduction of the instrument or catheter.
- The entire urethra is evenly coated with lubricant to dilate the tissue.2
- The instillation of lubricant preforms the urethra for the introduction of the instrument, which is then less likely to catch in the folds of the mucosa or in the narrow anatomical passages.1
- Lubricant from a single-use sterile container or syringe can be used before insertion of a catheter to minimize urethral trauma and infection.4
Only an unbroken film of lubricant can reduce the danger of damage to the urethra by protecting the highly vulnerable urothelium from traumatizing contact with instruments; this requirement cannot be met by dipping the tip of the catheter or instrument into lubricant.1
The male urethra is approximately 18 to 20 cm long,5 and its anatomy — being rich in blood vessels and relatively inelastic — makes it sensitive to trauma.1
The female urethra is shorter (approximately 4 cm) and when not in use lies flat like a ribbon in unequal and changing folds. As in the male, the underlying layer is heavily supplied with blood vessels, is not very elastic and is therefore easily damaged during invasive procedures.3 However, unlike that of the male, the female urethra does not have lubricating glands so may be at greater risk of trauma.6
Please see full prescribing
indications and safety
Benefits of Instillation
with a Lidocaine Gel
protect against pain
Providing sufficient urethral anesthesia with a lubricant containing lidocaine reduces the risk of injury from a patient’s involuntary defensive movements.1
GLYDO contains 2% lidocaine hydrochloride (20 mg per mL) that allows for effective surface anesthesia for prevention and control of pain in procedures involving the male and female urethra.7 GLYDO has an onset of action of three to five minutes and takes full anesthetic effect within five to 10 minutes after complete instillation.7
Compared with a nonanesthetic lubricating gel, instillation with lidocaine gel resulted in:
- significantly less pain in men undergoing flexible cystoscopy9
- reduced likelihood of moderate to severe pain in men undergoing cystoscopy10
- reduced peri- and post-procedural pain, reduced bladder spasm and improved patient comfort when voiding after cystoscopy in both men and women11
- significantly reduced pain in men12 and children13 undergoing urethral catheterization
- Muctar S. The importance of a lubricant in transurethral interventions. Urologe B. 1991;31:153-155.
- Sperling H, Lümmen G, Rübben H. Der Einsatz von Gleitmitteln in der Urologie [Use of lubricants in urology. Indications and results]. Urologe A. 2005;6:662-666.
- de Courcy-Ireland K. An issue of sensitivity: use of analgesic gel in catheterising women. Prof Nurse. 1993;8(11):738-742.
- National Collaborating Centre for Nursing and Supportive Care (UK). Infection Control: Prevention of Healthcare-associated Infections in Primary and Community Care. NICE Clinical Guidelines, No. 2. London, England: Thames Valley University, 2003.
- Singh V. Textbook of Anatomy: Abdomen and Lower Limb, Volume II. 2nd ed. New Delhi, India: Reed Elsevier India Private Limited; 2014.
- Colley W. A guide to female catheterization. NursTimes. 1997;93:34-35.
- GLYDOTM [package insert]. Schaumburg, Ill; Sagent Pharmaceuticals, Inc.; 2014.
- Eggersmann C, Lang K, Linn J, Throff JW. Effect of lidocaine gel on the sensory threshold of the male urethra. Akt Urol. 1995;26:19-21.
- Borch M, Scosyrev E, Baron B, Encarnacion J, Smith EM, Messing E. A randomized trial of 2% lidocaine gel versus plain lubricating gel for minimizing pain in men undergoing flexible cystoscopy. Urol Nurs. 2013;33;187-193.
- Aaronson DS, Walsh TJ, Smith JF, Davies BJ, Hsieh MH, Konety BR. Meta-analysis: does lidocaine gel before flexible cystoscopy provide pain relief? BJU Int. 2009;104(4):506-509.
- Russell I, McCoy JD. Is there need for anaesthetic gel prior to urethral instrumentation? Poster presentation at Association for Continence Advice 2010 annual conference.
- Siderias J, Gaudio F, Singer AJ. Comparison of topical anesthetics and lubricants prior to urethral catheterization in males: a randomized controlled trial. Acad Emerg Med. 2004;11:703-706.
- Gerard LL, Cooper CS, Duethman S, Gordley BM, Kleiber CM. Effectiveness of lidocaine lubricant for discomfort during pediatric urethral catheterization. J Urol. 2003 Aug;170(2 Pt 1):564-567.
SCROLL FOR COMPLETE PRESCRIBING INFORMATION
GLYDO® (lidocaine HCl jelly USP, 2%)
GLYDO (lidocaine HCl jelly USP, 2%) is a sterile aqueous product that contains a local anesthetic agent and is administered topically. (See INDICATIONS for specific uses.)
GLYDO (lidocaine HCl jelly USP, 2%) contains lidocaine HCl which is chemically designated as acetamide, 2-(diethyl-amino)-N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-, monohydrochloride and has the following structural formula:
GLYDO (lidocaine HCl jelly USP, 2%) also contains hypromellose, and the resulting mixture maximizes contact with mucosa and provides lubrication for instrumentation. The unused portion should be discarded after initial use.
GLYDO (lidocaine HCl jelly USP, 2%) is available in 6 mL and 11 mL single-dose prefilled syringes. Each mL contains 20 mg of lidocaine HCl. The formulation also contains hypromellose, and sodium hydroxide to adjust pH to 6.0 to 7.0.
Mechanism of Action
Lidocaine stabilizes the neuronal membrane by inhibiting the ionic fluxes required for the initiation and conduction of impulses, thereby effecting local anesthetic action.
Onset of Action
The onset of action is 3 to 5 minutes. It is ineffective when applied to intact skin.
Excessive blood levels may cause changes in cardiac output, total peripheral resistance, and mean arterial pressure. These changes may be attributable to a direct depressant effect of the local anesthetic agent on various components of the cardiovascular system.
Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism
Lidocaine may be absorbed following topical administration to mucous membranes, its rate and extent of absorption depending upon concentration and total dose administered, the specific site of application, and duration of exposure. In general, the rate of absorption of local anesthetic agents following topical application occurs most rapidly after intratracheal administration. Lidocaine is also well-absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, but little intact drug may appear in the circulation because of biotransformation in the liver.
Lidocaine is metabolized rapidly by the liver, and metabolites and unchanged drug are excreted by the kidneys. Biotransformation includes oxidative N-dealkylation, ring hydroxylation, cleavage of the amide linkage, and conjugation. N-dealkylation, a major pathway of biotransformation, yields the metabolites monoethylglycinexylidide and glycinexylidide. The pharmacological/toxicological actions of these metabolites are similar to, but less potent than, those of lidocaine. Approximately 90% of lidocaine administered is excreted in the form of various metabolites, and less than 10% is excreted unchanged. The primary metabolite in urine is a conjugate of 4-hydroxy-2,6-dimethylaniline.
The plasma binding of lidocaine is dependent on drug concentration, and the fraction bound decreases with increasing concentration. At concentrations of 1 to 4 mcg of free base per mL, 60 to 80 percent of lidocaine is protein bound. Binding is also dependent on the plasma concentration of the alpha-1-acid glycoprotein.
Lidocaine crosses the blood-brain and placental barriers, presumably by passive diffusion.
Studies of lidocaine metabolism following intravenous bolus injections have shown that the elimination half-life of this agent is typically 1.5 to 2.0 hours. Because of the rapid rate at which lidocaine is metabolized, any condition that affects liver function may alter lidocaine kinetics. The half-life may be prolonged twofold or more in patients with liver dysfunction. Renal dysfunction does not affect lidocaine kinetics but may increase the accumulation of metabolites.
Factors such as acidosis and the use of CNS stimulants and depressants affect the CNS levels of lidocaine required to produce overt systemic effects. Objective adverse manifestations become increasingly apparent with increasing venous plasma levels above 6.0 mcg free base per mL. In the rhesus monkey arterial blood levels of 18 to 21 mcg/mL have been shown to be threshold for convulsive activity.
INDICATIONS AND USAGE
GLYDO (lidocaine HCl jelly USP, 2%) is indicated for prevention and control of pain in procedures involving the male and female urethra, for topical treatment of painful urethritis, and as an anesthetic lubricant for endotracheal intubation (oral and nasal).
Lidocaine is contraindicated in patients with a known history of hypersensitivity to local anesthetics of the amide type or to other components of GLYDO.
EXCESSIVE DOSAGE, OR SHORT INTERVALS BETWEEN DOSES, CAN RESULT IN HIGH PLASMA LEVELS AND SERIOUS ADVERSE EFFECTS. PATIENTS SHOULD BE INSTRUCTED TO STRICTLY ADHERE TO THE RECOMMENDED DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION GUIDELINES AS SET FORTH IN THIS PACKAGE INSERT.
THE MANAGEMENT OF SERIOUS ADVERSE REACTIONS MAY REQUIRE THE USE OF RESUSCITATIVE EQUIPMENT, OXYGEN, AND OTHER RESUSCITATIVE DRUGS.
GLYDO should be used with extreme caution in the presence of sepsis or severely traumatized mucosa in the area of application, since under such conditions there is the potential for rapid systemic absorption.
When used for endotracheal tube lubrication care should be taken to avoid introducing the product into the lumen of the tube. Do not use the jelly to lubricate the endotracheal stylettes. If allowed into the inner lumen, the jelly may dry on the inner surface leaving a residue which tends to clump with flexion, narrowing the lumen. There have been rare reports in which this residue has caused the lumen to occlude. (See also ADVERSE REACTIONS and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION.)
The safety and effectiveness of lidocaine depend on proper dosage, correct technique, adequate precautions, and readiness for emergencies. (See WARNINGS and ADVERSE REACTIONS.) The lowest dosage that results in effective anesthesia should be used to avoid high plasma levels and serious adverse effects. Repeated doses of lidocaine may cause significant increases in blood levels with each repeated dose because of slow accumulation of the drug or its metabolites. Tolerance to elevated blood levels varies with the status of the patient. Debilitated, elderly patients, acutely ill patients, and children should be given reduced doses commensurate with their age and physical status. Lidocaine should also be used with caution in patients with severe shock or heart block.
GLYDO should be used with caution in patients with known drug sensitivities. Patients allergic to para-aminobenzoic acid derivatives (procaine, tetracaine, benzocaine, etc.) have not shown cross sensitivity to lidocaine.
Many drugs used during the conduct of anesthesia are considered potential triggering agents for familial malignant hyperthermia. Since it is not known whether amide-type local anesthetics may trigger this reaction and since the need for supplemental general anesthesia cannot be predicted in advance, it is suggested that a standard protocol for management should be available. Early unexplained signs of tachycardia, tachypnea, labile blood pressure, and metabolic acidosis may precede temperature elevation. Successful outcome is dependent on early diagnosis, prompt discontinuance of the suspect triggering agent(s) and institution of treatment, including oxygen therapy, indicated supportive measures and dantrolene (consult dantrolene sodium intravenous package insert before using).
Information for Patients
When topical anesthetics are used in the mouth, the patient should be aware that the production of topical anesthesia may impair swallowing and thus enhance the danger of aspiration. For this reason, food should not be ingested for 60 minutes following use of local anesthetic preparations in the mouth or throat area. This is particularly important in children because of their frequency of eating.
Numbness of the tongue or buccal mucosa may enhance the danger of unintentional biting trauma. Food and chewing gum should not be taken while the mouth or throat area is anesthetized.
Carcinogenesis—Long-term studies in animals have not been performed to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of lidocaine.
Mutagenesis—The mutagenic potential of lidocaine has been tested in the Ames Salmonella reverse mutation assay, an in vitro chromosome aberrations assay in human lymphocytes and in an in vivo mouse micronucleus assay. There was no indication of any mutagenic effect in these studies.
Impairment of Fertility: The effect of lidocaine on fertility was examined in the rat model.
Administration of 30 mg/kg, s.c. (180 mg/m2) to the mating pair did not produce alterations in fertility or general reproductive performance of rats. There are no studies that examine the effect of lidocaine on sperm parameters. There was no evidence of altered fertility.
Use in Pregnancy
Teratogenic Effects: Pregnancy Category B
Reproduction studies for lidocaine have been performed in both rats and rabbits. There was no evidence of harm to the fetus at subcutaneous doses of up to 50 mg/kg lidocaine (300 mg/m2 on a body surface area basis) in the rat model. In the rabbit model, there was no evidence of harm to the fetus at a dose of 5 mg/kg, s.c. (60 mg/m2 on a body surface area basis). Treatment of rabbits with 25 mg/kg (300 mg/m2) produced evidence of maternal toxicity and evidence of delayed fetal development, including a non-significant decrease in fetal weight (7%) and an increase in minor skeletal anomalies (skull and sternebral defect, reduced ossification of the phalanges). The effect of lidocaine on post-natal development was examined in rats by treating pregnant female rats daily subcutaneously at doses of 2, 10, and 50 mg/kg (12, 60, and 300 mg/m2) from day 15 of pregnancy and up to 20 days post partum. No signs of adverse effects were seen either in dams or in the pups up to and including the dose of 10 mg/kg (60 mg/m2); however, the number of surviving pups was reduced at 50 mg/kg (300 mg/m2), both at birth and the duration of lactation period, the effect most likely being secondary to maternal toxicity. No other effects on litter size, litter weight, abnormalities in the pups and physical developments of the pups were seen in this study.
A second study examined the effects of lidocaine on post-natal development in the rat that included assessment of the pups from weaning to sexual maturity.
Rats were treated for 8 months with 10 or 30 mg/kg, s.c. lidocaine (60 mg/m2 and 180 mg/m2 on a body surface area basis, respectively). This time period encompassed 3 mating periods. There was no evidence of altered post-natal development in any offspring; however, both doses of lidocaine significantly reduced the average number of pups per litter surviving until weaning of offspring from the first 2 mating periods.
There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.
Labor and Delivery
Lidocaine is not contraindicated in labor and delivery. Should GLYDO be used concomitantly with other products containing lidocaine, the total dose contributed by all formulations must be kept in mind.
Lidocaine is secreted in human milk. The clinical significance of this observation is unknown. Caution should be exercised when lidocaine is administered to a nursing woman.
Although, the safety and effectiveness of GLYDO in pediatric patients have not been established, a study of 19 premature neonates (gestational age <33 weeks) found no correlation between the plasma concentration of lidocaine or monoethylglycinexylidide and infant body weight when moderate amounts of lidocaine (i.e. 0.3 mL/kg of lidocaine gel 20 mg/mL) were used for lubricating both intranasal and endotracheal tubes. No neonate had plasma levels of lidocaine above 750 mcg/L. Dosages in children should be reduced, commensurate with age, body weight, and physical condition. (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION.)
Adverse experiences following the administration of lidocaine are similar in nature to those observed with other amide local anesthetic agents. These adverse experiences are, in general, dose-related and may result from high plasma levels caused by excessive dosage or rapid absorption, or may result from a hypersensitivity, idiosyncrasy, or diminished tolerance on the part of the patient. Serious adverse experiences are generally systemic in nature. The following types are those most commonly reported:
There have been rare reports of endotracheal tube occlusion associated with the presence of dried jelly residue in the inner lumen of the tube. (See also WARNINGS and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION.)
Central Nervous System
CNS manifestations are excitatory and/or depressant and may be characterized by lightheadedness, nervousness, apprehension, euphoria, confusion, dizziness, drowsiness, tinnitus, blurred or double vision, vomiting, sensations of heat, cold or numbness, twitching, tremors, convulsions, unconsciousness, respiratory depression, and arrest. The excitatory manifestations may be very brief or may not occur at all, in which case the first manifestation of toxicity may be drowsiness merging into unconsciousness and respiratory arrest.
Drowsiness following the administration of lidocaine is usually an early sign of a high blood level of the drug and may occur as a consequence of rapid absorption.
Cardiovascular manifestations are usually depressant and are characterized by bradycardia, hypotension, and cardiovascular collapse, which may lead to cardiac arrest.
Allergic reactions are characterized by cutaneous lesions, urticaria, edema, or anaphylactoid reactions. Allergic reactions may occur as a result of sensitivity either to the local anesthetic agent or to other components in the formulation. Allergic reactions as a result of sensitivity to lidocaine are extremely rare and, if they occur, should be managed by conventional means. The detection of sensitivity by skin testing is of doubtful value.
To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Sagent Pharmaceuticals, Inc. at 1-866-625-1618 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch.
Acute emergencies from local anesthetics are generally related to high plasma levels encountered during therapeutic use of local anesthetics. (See ADVERSE REACTIONS, WARNINGS, and PRECAUTIONS.)
Management of Local Anesthetic Emergencies
The first consideration is prevention, best accomplished by careful and constant monitoring of cardiovascular and respiratory vital signs and the patient’s state of consciousness after each local anesthetic administration. At the first sign of change, oxygen should be administered.
The first step in the management of convulsions consists of immediate attention to the maintenance of a patent airway and assisted or controlled ventilation with oxygen and a delivery system capable of permitting immediate positive airway pressure by mask. Immediately after the institution of these ventilatory measures, the adequacy of the circulation should be evaluated, keeping in mind that drugs used to treat convulsions sometimes depress the circulation when administered intravenously. Should convulsions persist despite adequate respiratory support, and if the status of the circulation permits, small increments of an ultra-short acting barbiturate (such as thiopental or thiamylal) or a benzodiazepine (such as diazepam) may be administered intravenously. The clinician should be familiar, prior to use of local anesthetics, with these anticonvulsant drugs. Supportive treatment of circulatory depression may require administration of intravenous fluids and, when appropriate, a vasopressor as directed by the clinical situation (e.g., ephedrine).
If not treated immediately, both convulsions and cardiovascular depression can result in hypoxia, acidosis, bradycardia, arrhythmias, and cardiac arrest. If cardiac arrest should occur, standard cardiopulmonary resuscitative measures should be instituted.
Dialysis is of negligible value in the treatment of acute overdosage with lidocaine.
The oral LD50 of lidocaine HCl in non-fasted female rats is 459 (346 to 773) mg/kg (as the salt) and 214 (159 to 324) mg/kg (as the salt) in fasted female rats.
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
When GLYDO is used concomitantly with other products containing lidocaine, the total dose contributed by all formulations must be kept in mind.
The dosage varies and depends upon the area to be anesthetized, vascularity of the tissues, individual tolerance, and the technique of anesthesia. The lowest dosage needed to provide effective anesthesia should be administered. Dosages should be reduced for children and for elderly and debilitated patients. Although the incidence of adverse effects with GLYDO is quite low, caution should be exercised, particularly when employing large amounts, since the incidence of adverse effects is directly proportional to the total dose of local anesthetic agent administered.
For Surface Anesthesia of the Male Adult Urethra
The outer orifice is washed and disinfected. The plastic tip is introduced into the orifice, where it is firmly held in position. The jelly is instilled by an easy syringe-like action, until the patient has a feeling of tension or until about 15 mL (i.e., 300 mg of lidocaine hydrochloride) is instilled. A penile clamp is then applied for several minutes at the corona and then additional jelly (about 15 mL) can be instilled for adequate anesthesia. Prior to sounding or cystoscopy, a penile clamp should be applied for 5 to 10 minutes to obtain adequate anesthesia. A total dose of 30 mL (i.e., 600 mg) is usually required to fill and dilate the male urethra. Prior to catheterization, smaller volumes of 5 to 10 mL (100-200 mg) are usually adequate for lubrication.
For Surface Anesthesia of the Female Adult Urethra
Slowly instill 3 to 5 mL (60 to 100 mg of lidocaine HCl) of the jelly into the urethra. If desired, some jelly may be deposited on a cotton swab and introduced into the urethra. In order to obtain adequate anesthesia, several minutes should be allowed prior to performing urological procedures.
Lubrication for Endotracheal Intubation
Apply a moderate amount of jelly to the external surface of the endotracheal tube shortly before use. Care should be taken to avoid introducing the product into the lumen of the tube. Do not use the jelly to lubricate endotracheal stylettes. See WARNINGS and ADVERSE REACTIONS concerning rare reports of inner lumen occlusion. It is also recommended that use of endotracheal tubes with dried jelly on the external surface be avoided for lack of lubricating effect.
No more than 600 mg of lidocaine HCl should be given in any 12 hour period.
It is difficult to recommend a maximum dose of any drug for children since this varies as a function of age and weight. For children less than ten years who have a normal lean body mass and a normal lean body development, the maximum dose may be determined by the application of one of the standard pediatric drug formulas (e.g., Clark’s rule). For example, in a child of five years weighing 50 lbs, the dose of lidocaine hydrochloride should not exceed 75 to 100 mg when calculated according to Clark’s rule. In any case, the maximum amount of GLYDO administered should not exceed 4.5 mg/kg (2 mg/lb) of body weight.
GLYDO® (lidocaine HCl jelly USP, 2%) is supplied as follows:
GLYDO® (lidocaine HCl jelly USP, 2%)
NDC (20 mg per mL) Package Factor
25021-673-76 120 mg per 6 mL Single-Use Prefilled Syringe 10 syringes per carton
25021-673-77 220 mg per 11 mL Single-Use Prefilled Syringe 10 syringes per carton
Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F). [See USP Controlled Room Temperature.]
Sterile, Preservative-free, PVC-free.
The container closure is not made with natural rubber latex.
All trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
Mfd. for SAGENT Pharmaceuticals
Schaumburg, IL 60195 (USA)
Mfd. by Klosterfrau Berlin GmbH
Made in Germany
©2017 Sagent Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Revised: January 2014
INSTRUCTIONS FOR USE
Please note: The blister package contains a sterile syringe.
Do not open the blister until ready to use.
- When ready to use, open the blister and drop the syringe onto a sterile field.
- Before removing the tip cap, press in the plunger to remove any resistance that may be present. This helps ensure that the syringe will empty easily and uniformly.
- Remove the tip cap from the syringe. The syringe is now ready for use.
- GLYDO (lidocaine HCl jelly USP, 2%) should be instilled slowly and evenly into the urethra. See the DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION section for additional details.
- Wait for a few minutes after instillation of GLYDO (lidocaine HCl jelly USP, 2%) for the anesthetic to take full effect. Full anesthetic effect will occur in 5 to 10 minutes after complete instillation.
- Any gel not used in a single application must be discarded.